Chapter 1 – Transportation and Geography
Chapter 2 – Transportation and the Spatial Structure
Chapter 5 – International Trade and Freight Distribution
Chapter 7 – Transportation and the Economy
Chapter 8 – Transport, Energy and Environment
Chapter 9 – Transport Planning and Policy
Appendix – Methods in Transport Geography
Reduction of costs through improvement in packaging and reduction of wastes. Benefits are derived by the distributors.
Environmental costs are often externalized.
Integrated supply chains. JIT and DTD provide flexible and efficient physical distribution systems.
Extended production, distribution and retailing structures consuming more space, more energy and producing more emissions (CO2, particulates, NOx, etc.).
Increasing system-wide efficiency of the distribution system through network changes (Hub-and-spoke structure).
Concentration of environmental impacts next to major hubs and along corridors. Pressure on local communities.
Reliable and on-time distribution of freight and passengers.
Modes used, trucking and air transportation, are the least environmentally efficient.
Reducing the needs for private warehousing facilities.
Inventory shifted in part to public roads (or in containers), contributing to congestion and space consumption.
Increased business opportunities and diversification of the supply chains.
Changes in physical distribution systems towards higher levels of energy consumption.
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