Chapter 1 – Transportation and Geography
Chapter 2 – Transportation and the Spatial Structure
Chapter 5 – International Trade and Freight Distribution
Chapter 7 – Transportation and the Economy
Chapter 8 – Transport, Energy and Environment
Chapter 9 – Transport Planning and Policy
Appendix – Methods in Transport Geography
Logistics is being impacted by E-commerce, particularly by its business to consumer segment. In a
conventional retailing supply chain
, customers are responsible to purchase their goods at the retailers location; they are assuming the last mile in freight distribution by traveling to the store and back. For bulky purchases such as appliances and furniture, retailers offer local deliveries for their customers. Because location is an important dimension of retailing, significant costs are assumed by the retailer to retain such an accessible location (e.g. rent), which defines its market area (its customer base). These costs are reflected in the final costs of a good which is assumed by the consumer. The retailer maintains a level of in-store inventory (in the form of stocked shelves) which is replenished by regional distribution centers (RDC) where goods from a wide range of suppliers are stored. The most efficient retailers have a network of stores and distribution centers, some of which operating on thecross-dockingprinciple.
The emergence of e-commerce has changed the relationships between customers and retailers (e-retailers):
. In some cases, entirely new e-retailers have emerged, but the adoption of an online strategy by conventional retailers has also been very significant. In the emerging distribution system, the e-retailer is at the same time a retailer and a distribution center; an e-fulfillment center.
. The locational choice of e-retailers is much more flexible, permitting the use of lower cost locations that would not have been considered otherwise as suitable for retail. Large e-retailers can maintain anetwork of distribution centersto optimize their market coverage and service regional markets from specific distribution centers.
. Customers are virtually interfacing with a store and the orders are shipped through postal and/or parcel services, which take care of home deliveries. Figuratively, the customers are directly linked to the supply chain since their action of ordering a product reaches directly the distribution center.
. The deliveries are now the responsibility of the e-retailer, a move away from standard retailing where the customer took charge of the goods as soon as they were purchased.
All of the above underline the intensiveness ofdistribution-based consumption. Due to the time delay of home deliveries, as opposed to the immediate access in stores, there are a range of goods that are less suitable for ecommerce. Groceries and medications have a lower e-commerce share than apparels, cosmetics and electronics. To capture additional market share, online retailers are trying to establish same day or next day deliveries by pre-positioning high demand goods in urban logistics depots.
Copyright © 1998-2017, Dr. Jean-Paul Rodrigue,Dept. of Global Studies & Geography, Hofstra University, New York, USA.
This material (including graphics) cannot be copied or redistributed, in whole or in part, in ANY FORM (printed or electronic) and on ANY MEDIA. For specific uses permission MUST be requested and the material must be cited.